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BROCHER RESIDENCIES 2016 -- CALL FOR PROPOSALS

The Brocher Foundation offers visiting researchers the opportunity to come at the Brocher Centre in a peaceful park on the shores of Lake Geneva, to write a book, articles, an essay or a PhD thesis. The visiting positions are an occasion to meet other researchers from different disciplines and countries as well as experts from numerous International Organizations & Non Governmental Organizations based in Geneva, such as WHO, WTO, WIPO, UNHCR, ILO, WMA, ICRC, and others. The Brocher Foundation residencies last between 1 and 4 months.

They give researchers (PhD students to Professors) the opportunity to work at the Brocher Centre on projects on the ethical, legal and social implications for humankind of recent medical research and new technologies. Researchers can also apply with one or two other researchers to work on a collaborative project.

CHECK CONDITIONS AND APPLY ON WWW.BROCHER.CH/CALLS

Pictographs/Icon Arrays

Pictographs and icon arrays are two names for a type of risk communication graphic that CBSSM investigators have developed and extensively tested. Because pictographs are made up of a matrix of unique elements representing individual units (people) within the at-risk population, they accurately communicate exact percentages while simultaneously conveying “gist” impressions derived from the relative proportion of colored vs. uncolored area in the graph. Click here to learn more and create your own downloadable pictograph images.

 

Pictographs combine some of the best elements of alternate communication formats such as tables or bar charts. A pictograph is made up of unique icons representing individual units (people) within the at-risk population. As a result, it accurately communicates exact percentages the way a table does. However, pictographs also convey “gist” impressions derived from the relative proportion of colored vs. uncolored area in the graph. As such, they are similar in effectiveness to bar graphs and other area or height-based graphics. Furthermore, pictographs are like pie charts in that they represent the entire risk denominator visually, unlike bar charts which focus attention primarily on the risk numerator.

CBSSM researchers have shown that using pictographs in risk communication contexts can be used to effectively communicate the incremental benefit of risk reducing treatments (Zikmund-Fisher, 2008) and the risk of developing side effects from medications, especially when multiple colors are used to distinguish the incremental risk caused by treatment (Zikmund-Fisher, 2008). Pictographs can also limit the biases induced by the presence of powerful anecdotal narratives of former patients (Fagerlin, 2005) and incremental risk formats (Zikmund-Fisher, 2008). In a study that directly compared graphical formats, pictographs were also the only graphical format that supported acquisition of both verbatim and all-important “gist” knowledge (Hawley, 2008). Another study (2010) showed that simpler pictographs (ones that showed a single risk) appeared to be more effective than more visually complex pictographs that used multiple colors to show different risks simultaneously. In a similar vein, two studies (2011, 2012) have found advantages of using static pictographs instead of more complex animated or interactive versions (perhaps because these elements distract attention from the part-whole relationship that represents the risk being communicated).

CBSSM researchers are not alone in our use of pictographs. Other researchers have shown that image matricies of this type are easier to interpret quickly and accurately than other formats (Feldman-Stewart, 2007), are sometimes preferred by patients (Schapira, 2006), and may reduce side effect aversion in treatment decision-making (Waters, 2007). More recent work has shown that icon arrays overcome some of the barriers to comprehension caused by low numeracy (e.g., Galesic & Garcia-Retamero, 2009 & 2010; Garcia-Retamero & Galesic, 2009). In fact, it appears that high numeracy and low numeracy people use pictographs in different ways (Hess, et al, 2011).

To encourage broader use of pictographs in risk communication and medical decision-making in general, CBSSM has collaborated with the UM Risk Center to develop Iconarray.com, a web-based application that enables people to develop and download their own tailored icon array graphics. A companion site, clinician.iconarray.com, enables clinicians (or anyone else) to make side-by-side icon array displays for use in consultations in less than 1 minute.

 

Susan Goold presented a talk entitled, "Transforming public health: Deliberation, simulation, prioritization" at TEDxUofM, a university-wide initiative to galvanize the community for an event like no other: filled with inspiration, discovery and excitement. TEDxUofM takes place on Thursday, March 29, at the Power Center, 10 am - 5 pm.  Click here for more information.

Borrowing the template of the world-renowned TED conference, TEDxUofM aims to bring a TED-like experience to the University of Michigan. The vision is to showcase the most fascinating thinkers and doers, the "leaders and best" in Michigan terms, for a stimulating day of presentations, discussions, entertainment and art that will spark new ideas and opportunities across all disciplines.

TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. Started as a four-day conference in California 26 years ago, TED has grown to support those world-changing ideas with multiple initiatives. At TED, the world’s leading thinkers and doers are asked to give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. Talks are then made available, free, at TED.com. TED speakers have included Bill Gates, Jane Goodall, Elizabeth Gilbert, Sir Richard Branson, Benoit Mandelbrot, Philippe Starck, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Isabel Allende and former UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown.

Submit Your Paper for Consideration in the ASBH Student Paper Competition

If you are a student who would like to be considered for the Student Paper Award, please send your paper to the ASBH office in an electronic format (Word or PDF) to candersen@asbh.org, with “ASBH Student Paper Competition” in the subject line.  All papers need to be received at the ASBH office by July 15, 2013 to be considered.    The Awards Committee will review and rank all submissions.  The top three papers will be placed in a special session at the Annual Meeting, and one winner will be chosen at the meeting by the Awards Committee. The award will be presented during the Members’ meeting.

All papers will be assessed anonymously.  Do not include identifying information in your paper submissions, such as title pages with your name. Previous winners are not eligible for consideration. Eligible papers should be no more than 3500 words in length. A student is defined as one who is actively pursuing an advanced degree and has not received a doctoral-level degree (e.g., MD, PhD, JD or equivalent degree). Authors who are not students according to the definition above are not eligible for the Student Paper Award. Coauthored papers are eligible only if all authors are students.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact the ASBH office at: info@asbh.org

Thank you,
 
American Society for Bioethics + Humanities (ASBH)
Phone: 847-375-4745

www.asbh.org

 

Funded by the National Science Foundation

Funding years: 2010-2013

Increasingly people are communicating with one another through new media such as text messages exchanged via mobile devices. At the same time, survey response rates continue to drop. These phenomena are related to the extent that respondents only use mobile devices (21% of US households no longer have a landline phone) and frequently rely on modes other than voice, most notably text (which is certainly the norm among some subgroups in the US and increasingly among entire populations in other countries). Yet we know little about the impact of multimodal mobile devices on survey participation, completion, data quality and respondent satisfaction.

The proposed research will explore these issues in two experiments that will collect survey data on iPhones in four modes defined by whether the interviewing agent is a live human or a computer, and whether the medium of communication is voice or text. The resulting modes are telephone interviews, instant message (IM) interviews, speech integrated voice response (IVR), and automated IM. This way of defining modes enables us to isolate the effects of the agent and medium. The first experiment explores the effect of the four modes on participation, completion, data quality and satisfaction; the second explores the impact on the same four measures of allowing participants to choose the response mode.

More information: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/research/project-detail/34963

PI: Kathryn Moseley

Co-I: Mick Couper

Brian Zikmund-Fisher,  Angela Fagerlin, Nicole Exe, and Knoll Larkin have been involved in the Visualizing Health Project, which has recently launched an online style guide  for communicating health data. You can check it out at: www.vizhealth.org

The Visualizing Health project was a short and highly intense project funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation designed to push the envelope both in considering visual designs for communicating health risk data and in developing iterative research approaches for testing them. The project involved a large team combining researchers and staff from both the University of Michigan's Center for Health Communications Research and the Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine. The UM team then worked closely on a week by week basis with Thomas Goetz (former editor of Wired magazine) who envisioned the project, Tim Leong (graphic designer, author of Super Graphic), Andrea Ducas from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and teams of graphic designers that Tim recruited.

They created 16 distinct visual data display tasks related to health risks, had teams of graphic designers develop display concepts, and iteratively tested these displays using multiple online survey methodologies. The resulting designs and data were then assembled in a project website that included all the images, plus commentary and additional features such as a design "wizard" to help guide users to visual displays that best fit their personal needs.

Also, see the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of health blog.

Geoffrey Barnes, MD, MSc

Faculty

Geoff Barnes is a cardiologist and vascular medicine specialist at the University of Michigan Health System. He completed his undergraduate degree in biomedical engineering at Washington University in St. Louis (2003) followed by medical school at the University of Michigan (2007).  He then completed a residency (2010), chief residency (2011) in internal medicine, cardiology fellowship (2014) and vascular medicine fellowship (2014) at the University of Michigan.  His areas of research interest include anticoagulation, venous thromboembolism, quality improvement and shared decision making.

Research Interests: 
Last Name: 
Barnes

Funded by the NIH

In the past 30 years, the incidence of thyroid cancer has tripled. The majority of the rise in thyroid cancer incidence is attributed to an increase in low-risk, well-differentiated thyroid cancer, a disease that has a 10-year mortality close to zero. Our previous work suggests that patients with low-risk thyroid cancer are at risk for overtreatment, defined as the use of surgical and medical interventions in the absence of a clear survival benefit. The overtreatment of thyroid cancer has inherent costs, both to patient health and to society. The reason for the intensive management and potential overtreatment of low-risk thyroid cancer remains unclear. By using SEER-linked patient and physician surveys, we plan to understand the treatment decision making in low-risk thyroid cancer. We hypothesize that knowledge and attitudes influence decision making. Specifically, we anticipate that lack of knowledge of risks of death, recurrence and treatment complications is associated with treatment that is more intensive. In addition, we postulate that a general preference for active treatment will also be associated with more intensive cancer treatment. Although both patient and physician perceptions of treatment need (i.e., knowledge and attitudes) likely contribute to treatment intensity, we anticipate that the primary driver will be physicians, even after controlling for their patients' perceptions. This study will serve as the foundation for future intervention studies. By identifying the specific role of physician and patient knowledge and attitudes toward thyroid cancer treatment, we will be able to create tailored educational interventions to personalize surgical and medical care for thyroid cancer patients, thus minimizing overtreatment and its inherent risks and costs. As the rising incidence, low mortality, and pattern of intensive treatment make thyroid cancer arguably the best cancer model for overtreatment, this proposed study will also serve as a model to understand overtreatment in other malignancies. For more info: http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-CA201198-01A1

PI: Megan Haymart

CBSSM Co-Is: Sarah Hawley & Brian Zikmund-Fisher

Funded by the National Institutes of Health/Brigham and Women's Hospital/Boston University

Funding years: 2010-2013

The rapid identifcation of genetic risk factors for common, complex diseases poses great opportunities and challenges for public health. Genetic information is increasingly being utilized as part of commercial effors, including direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing to provide risk information on common diseases to consumers. Very few empirical data have been gathered to understand the characteristics of DTC test consumers, the psychological, behavioral and health impact (clinical utility), and the ethical, legal and social issues associated with DTC services.

In the proposed research, we will survey users of the two leading US companies providing DTC genetic testing (23andMe and Navigenics) regarding their response to genetic test s for common diseases of interest, including heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease (AD), arthritis, and breast, colon, lung and prostate cancers. Each company now has thousands of customers and each anticipates extensive sales in coming years. Each has agreed to allow our group to survey consumers using third-party data collection and analysis procedures that will enable an independent consideration of the benefits and risks of DTC testing in this format. The companies have also agreed to provide genetic test information (with respondents' permission) for analyses. A total of 1000 consumers (500 from each company) website will be surveyed via the Internet at three time points: 1) before receipt of genetic test results; 2) approximately two weeks following receipt of test results; and 3) six months following receipt of results.

More information: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/research/project-detail/35031

PI: Scott Roberts

Co-I: Mick Couper

Edward Goldman, JD, BA

Faculty

From 1978 to 2009, Ed was head of the U-M Health System Legal Office.  In 2009 he moved into the Medical School Department of ObGyn as an Associate Professor to work full-time on issues of sexual rights and reproductive justice.  He has teaching appointments in the Medical School, the School of Public Health, the Law School, and LSA Women's Studies.  He teaches courses on the legal and ethical aspects of medicine at the Medical School, the rules of human subjects research at the School of Public Health and reproductive justice in LSA and the Law School..  In 2011, Ed went to Ghana and helpe

Research Interests: 
Last Name: 
Goldman

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