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The novelty of risk and vaccination intentions (May-12)

It's 2009.  Early in the year, a 9-year-old girl from California became the first person with a confirmed case of H1N1 ("swine") influenza in the United States.  Shortly thereafter, the U.S. declared a public health emergency and the World Health Organization declared a phase 6 pandemic (the highest level possible).  By September 2009 a vaccination was developed and was available within a month.

You've been following the news about the H1N1 influenza as developments have unfolded throughout the year, and you feel some concern.  You have been wondering about the risk of coming down with the H1N1 flu yourself and have been thinking about whether you should be vaccinated. 

Thu, May 26, 2011

Raymond De Vries was appointed Professor of Midwifery Science at the University of Maastricht (Netherlands) in November 2010.  As is the custom in European universities, he delivered an inaugural lecture, outlining the educational and research goals of his professorship on May 26, 2011.  It was preceded by a research symposium focusing on risk in maternity care, with speakers exploring the way risk is measured and used by care providers and the way pregnant women respond to assessments of risk they are given. Click here to view a video of his inaugural address, which is in English. Click here for a news article about Dr. De Vries, in Dutch.

Raymond De Vries is co-author on a new publication in Academic Medicine, highlighting a successful model for collaboration which was developed in the early phases of a grant funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation nearly five years ago. The Collaborative Health Alliance for Reshaping Training, Education, and Research (CHARTER) project expanded the partnerships between the University of Michigan and several Ghanaian academic institutions to enhance health care provider education and build and/or increase research capacity. One of the early goals of the grant was to establish guiding principles for engagement through a Charter of Collaboration.


Read more about the partnership through UMHS News and the origional PubMed article.

Thu, February 26, 2015

Raymond De Vries, Co-Director of CBSSM,  Kerry Ryan, H. Myra Kim, and Scott Kim are co-authors on a recently published JAMA Research Letter entitled, “Moral Concerns and the Willingness to Donate to a Research Biobank.”  Tom Tomlinson, PhD from MSU is the first author.

Listen here to Dr. De Vries discussing the findings on Michigan Radio's Stateside program.
 

Research Topics: 
Tue, March 10, 2015

Beth Tarini MS, MD shared the findings of her research in a news article on the UMHS website. The research explores parents' perspectives on genomic sequencing for themselves and their children. "Particularly fascinating was that parents’ interest for having predictive genetic testing done for themselves reflected their interest in testing their children too – it appears to be a global decision for the family," Tarini explained. The study will be published in this month's issue of Public Health Genomics.

Research Topics: 

Darin Zahuranec’s survey study, “Variability in physician prognosis and recommendations after intracerebral hemorrhage” published in Neurology found that physicians vary substantially in ICH prognostic estimates and treatment recommendations. This study suggests that variability could have a profound effect on life and death decision-making and treatment for ICH.


Several CBSSM-affiliated faculty and alumni were co-authors: Angie Fagerlin, Meghan Roney, Andrea Fuhrel-Forbis, and Lewis Morgenstern.


http://ihpi.umich.edu/news/survey-severe-stroke-prognoses-differ-depending-doctor

Wed, October 11, 2017

In a study published in Cancer, Reshma Jagsi, Sarah Hawley and other researchers examined the impact double mastectomy on employment of breast cancer patients. They found that working patients who received more aggressive treatments were more likely to experience substantial employment disruptions.

F. Jacob Seagull, PhD

Faculty

F. Jacob Seagull, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Medical Education at the University of Michigan Medical School. His research interests include patient safety, human perception and preformance, technology design and implementation, and human factors. 

 
Last Name: 
Seagull

How would you adapt? (Nov-05)

Could you cope and find happiness if you were living with paraplegia? Think about what it would be like to have paraplegia and to imagine the impact of this disability on your life. Although some aspects of your life will become more difficult, there are ways to make your daily life a little easier.

List something that would help you to adapt physically if you had paraplegia. (For example, if you lost your eyesight, you could learn Braille, and/or use a cane). Just as there are ways to help you to adapt physically to paraplegia, there are also ways to help handle the immediate and long-term emotional reactions. List a strategy that you would use to emotionally cope with having paraplegia.

Please think about the two most upsetting things about developing paraplegia. Do you think these two things would become more or less upsetting over time?

  • More upsetting over time
  • Less upsetting over time
  • Equally upsetting over time

Please rate paraplegia on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0=quality of life as bad as death and 100=quality of life as good as perfect health.

How do your answers compare?

Those who were given the adaptation exercise rated paraplegia much higher, 62. That means considering adaption tends to have people look more favorably on paraplegia than they otherwise would. For most people, the adaptation exercise resulted in higher ratings. Let's take a closer look at the actual study and explore the importance of considering adaptation.

A discrepancy in perceptions of quality of life

When people first think about a disability, it might seem pretty catastrophic. At first glance, you might think that people living with paraplegia must be miserable. Patients who actually have paraplegia, however, report their quality of life to be significantly better than the public estimates that it would be. It appears, then, that there is a discrepancy between the self-rated quality of life of people with paraplegia, and healthy people's estimates of what their quality of life would be if they had this condition.

Why this discrepancy?

CBDSM director Peter Ubel teamed up with researchers Christopher Jepson and George Loewenstein to conduct a series of studies that aimed to explain why this discrepancy exists. Past research has suggested that patients do not overestimate their good mood, which led the researchers to hypothesize that, in fact, non-patients truly underestimate the quality of life experienced by people with disabilities. The researchers speculated about two explanations that could account for this underestimation. One possibility is that non-patients may be subject to a focusing illusion. That is, they might fail to appreciate that not all life domains or life events will be affected by the disability. Another possibility is that non-patients may be failing to consider adaptation, unable to realize how their feelings and their ability to cope will change over time.

In one study, each subject received one of several defocusing tasks in addition to rating paraplegia. For example, one of these tasks asked subjects to rate how much better or worse their life would be with regards to eight specific life events (e.g., visiting with friends). Another task asked subjects to think of five events that took up the largest amount of their time the preceding day and to rate how much better or worse these events would be if they had paraplegia. In a second study, subjects received one of several adaptation exercise in addition to rating paraplegia. One of these was similar to what you read on the previous page, although more extensive. Another had subjects consider their quality of life both 1 month and 5 years after developing paraplegia. In both studies, sujects rated paraplegia either before and after or only after completing an intervention.

The researchers found that none of the defocusing tasks had any effect on ratings of paraplegia. In fact, these tasks actually caused many participants to give lower ratings than they would have otherwise. All of the adaptation exercises, on the other hand, increased subjects' ratings of paraplegia. Taken together, these results support that the tendency of nonpatients to underestimate the quality of life associated with disabilities is not the result of a focusing illusion, but rather the result of failure to consider adaptation.

Read the article:

Disability and sunshine: Can predictions be improved by drawing attention to focusing illusions or emotional adaptation?
Ubel PA, Jepson C, Loewenstein G. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;11:111-123.

On Thursday, May 19, at 4:30 pm in the Alumni Center, the Inaugural Bishop Lecture in Bioethics was held.  Established by a generous gift from the estate of Ronald C. and Nancy V. Bishop, both graduates of the University of Michigan Medical School (Class of '44), the inaugural address was given by John D. Lantos, MD, in a talk entitled, "The Complex Ethical Mess Surrounding Genetic Testing in Children." 

Dr. Lantos is the Director of the Children's Mercy Bioethics Center in Kansas City and is a leading voice in bioethics.  He has authored or edited five books and numerous publications, including Do We Still Need Doctors?, The Lazarus Case, Neonatal Bioethics, and The Last Physician: Walter Percy and the Moral Life of Medicine.  Lantos has discussed designer babies on Larry King Live, medical errors on Oprah, and ethics consultations on Nightline.  The Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine co-sponsored the event.  Over 75 people attended the lecture, which was followed by a reception.

 

John D. Lantos, MD

 

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